According to some references, the universal occurrence of Anabaena azollae inside the leaves of Azolla suggests that reproduction of this water fern may be. Publication details. Anabaena azollae Strasburger , fig. Published in: Strasburger, E.A. (). Das botanische Practicum. Anleitung zum. Cultures of Azolla caroliniana Willd. free of the symbiotic blue-green alga, Anabaena azollae, were obtained by treatment of Azolla fronds with a regimen of .

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So, the domestication of this fern through the induction of sporulation, the collection of spores, storage, and their germination to have more biomass is needed. In return, nitrogen azollse in heterocysts moves into the vegetative cells, at least in part in the form of amino acids. For that reason and given that in many countries the populations are far away from cities or do not have scientific resources, it would be useful to discover a cheaper, simple, and rapid method to detect such azollae.

Anabaena azollae

The process in which light changes the shape of molecules in the retinathereby driving the cellular reactions and signals that cause vision in vertebratesis studied in Anabaena.

Although Azolla can be useful for human consumption, there azollad very few reports about it.

When individual plants of Azolla die, this nitrate fertilizer is released into the environment, where it becomes available to other plants. Archives for Microbiology In fact, the high biosorption capability of Azolla was used to make a biofilter with packed dried Azolla in order to provide an efficient tool to decontaminate industrial and domestic effluents [ 7374 ].

However, this means a good availability of water, which in many tropical countries especially in Africa is not possible due to severe dryness.

Fiir Anfanger und Fortgeschrittnere Carbohydrate, probably in the form of glucose, is synthesized in vegetative cells and moves into heterocysts. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Nitrogen fixation by Anabaena azollae. Identification of the oxygen-evolving photoreaction as the delayed light emitter in mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus.

Electron microscope study of heterocyst development in Anabaena azollae Strasburger. Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, vegetative cells differentiate into heterocysts at semiregular intervals along the filaments. At first, the bacteria that inhabit the foliar cavities were not considered as nitrogen-fixing, but the presence of nitrogenase was detected in some bacteria [ 36 ], but their role and importance in the symbiosis are not clear.


On the vegetative life cycle, there is a synchronous development of both symbionts Azolla and A. We are IntechOpen, the world’s leading publisher of Open Access books. If the fern is only used in the phytoremediation of water, the local populations can send this fern to an industry to recover the heavy metals and receive a monetary compensation or small villages can build a small recovery factory and sell the heavy metals to advanced factories.

Keywords Azolla Anabaena azollae symbiosis fern cyanobiont bacteria biofertilizer food phytoremediation.

The high rate of nitrogen fixation by the cyanobiont A. Purification and properties of unicellular blue-green algae order Chroococcales. The greatest economic value of ferns has been…. It has not yet been possible to grow the isolated alga in independent culture.

The Azolla, Anabaena azollae Relationship: The water of the pond should be analyzed for the presence of harmful contaminants. However, the efficient uptake of heavy metals by dried Azolla depends on time, the flux of the effluent, pH, and temperature, and Azolla species is turning difficult to make an optimized and efficient system to be applied in large-scale decontamination of wastewaters.

Pereira December 20th It can also be combined with other foods to create balanced diets. Please review our privacy policy. The taxonomy of Azolla is mostly made by morphological characters vegetative and reproductivebut in the last years, the gene sequencing contributed to the clarification of the relationships between the species although some controversies still remain about the number of species [ 11121314 ].

However, since it is necessary to use less amount of synthetic fertilizers, the production costs become lower. A Round shape of Azolla filiculoides with chlorophyllous dorsal lobes. However, the method of incorporation of the anabaeba in rice fields seems to be important. When Azolla is applied in the soil of paddy fields, there is an increase in income of grain yield, caryopsis, straw, and dry matter [ 74247 ].


This azolae has good digestibility [ 838591azollaae ], but considering the smell, fresh Azolla has a green, mold odor due to some volatile compounds such as alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes that can contribute to its unpleasant smell [ 93 ]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Production of these neurotoxins is assumed to be an input into its symbiotic relationships, protecting the plant from grazing pressure.

World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. In fish aquaculture, it is usual to add sulfadimethoxine to prevent diseases in animals but the not absorbed fraction of this antibiotic is excreted through the fish feces and thus contaminates the water.

The water of the pond should be analyzed for the presence of harmful contaminants; If it is decided to use the Azolla that grow in water bodies, the water and fern must be analyzed in terms of contaminants since if it surpasses the legal amounts provided by each country, WHO, FAO, or other it cannot be used. The incorporation of Anabaean in the soil also improves the physical properties of soil such as the organic and nitrogen content, the availability of phosphorus, soil texture, pH, and porosity, among other soil properties [ 746 ].

Anabaena azollae – Wikispecies

Morphology of the symbiosis between Azolla and the cyanobiont. Morphological aspects of the symbiotic association show the confinement of the Anabaena azollae within the leaf cavity of the Azolla. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science Heterocyst cells are terminally specialized for nitrogen fixation. These photosynthetic bacteria have the ability to transform atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate fertilizer. A Cross section of the sporophyte showing the curved apical meristem AM until the fully developed dorsal lobe DL with an ovoid cavity arrow and the ventral lobes VL.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. The effect of nitrogen starvation. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.