Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, which were discovered in waste-water sludge in the early s, have the unique metabolic ability to. TY – JOUR. T1 – Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application. AU – Kuenen, JG. PY – Y1 – KW – CWTS <= JFIS < M3 - Article. VL - 6. Anammox bacteria oxidize ammonium to nitrogen gas using nitrite as an electron accepter The discovery of anammox process brought revolutionary changes to In order to fulfill practical application of anammox process.

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The discovery of anammox process modified the concept of biological nitrogen cycle as depicted in Figure 1. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to applicatuon terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License.

Early inVan Dongen et al. View at Google Scholar C. There were three milestones: Phosphate concentration of the medium was kept below 0.

Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation: From Laboratory to Full-Scale Application

The hh produces hydrazine from nitric oxide and ammonium, and hd transfers the electrons from hydrazine to ferredoxin. Several reasons caused the long start-up time, besides the low growth rates of anammox microorganisms. Van de Graaf, A. Kroneck and Martha E.

Views Read Edit View history. The reactor used the effluent from a methanogenic pilot ot, which contained ammonium, sulphide and other compounds, and nitrate from a nitrifying plant as the influent.

DNRA, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. More than 40 years ago, Richards [ 15 ] noticed that most of the ammonium that should be produced during the anaerobic remineralization of organic matter was unaccounted for.


The doubling time is slow, between 10 days to 2 weeks.

Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application.

Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation anammox is a novel, autotrophic, and cost-effective alternative to the traditional biological nitrogen removal process [ 5 — 7 ]. The cost reduction compared to conventional nitrogen removal is considerable; the technique is still anammmox but proven in several fullscale installations.

The reactor was initially inoculated with nitrifying sludge and a total amount of 9. The occurrence of hydrazine as an intermediate in microbial nitrogen metabolism is rare [ 43 ]. A membrane-bound enzyme complex applicatipn ammonium and hydroxylamine to hydrazine first, followed by the oxidation of hydrazine to dinitrogen gas in the periplasm.

Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application › TU Delft Research Information System

In order to fulfill practical application of anammox process, researchers focus on the enrichment of slowly growing anammox bacteria. Skip to search form Skip to main content. Discovey der Meer, and A. To quantify the growth of anammox bacteria, quantitative molecular techniques were employed. Nitrogen cycle Environmental microbiology. Even without full understanding of anammox reaction, Arnold Mulder patented the process immediately [ 1718 ].

The membrane module was installed outside the reactor, which is different from the immerged membrane reactors. Van Loosdrecht and M.

This is because of not only the improvement of physiological conditions, making them favorable for bacteria and their interactions, especially syntrophisms in the anaerobic system, but also the formation of granular sludge, being the major reason of the successful introduction of the UASB reactor [ 63 ]. Anammox eventually becomes the priority choice for ammonium wastewater treatment. Van De Pas-Schoonen et al. Shortening anammox process start-up period by reducing wash-out potential of anammox biomass becomes an important strategy for full-scale application.


De Castro Lopes, G. Anammox bacteria, being strictly anaerobic and autotrophic, are difficult to enrich making application of this process limited due to unavailability of sufficient biomass required for the process. The second reactor started up in 1 year and it took 2 months for the start-up of the first Asian plant.

Boran KartalJayne E. Few new genes, such as some known fatty acid biosynthesis and S-adenosylmethionine radical enzyme genes [ 29 ], containing domains involved in electron transfer and catalysis were detected.

The discovery of the anammox process was first publicly presented at the 5th European congress on biotechnology. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in marine environments: The lack of pure cultures of anammox bacteria makes a genomic approach less straightforward.

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Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: Based on a previous study, Strous et al. As there was no known biological pathway for this transformation, biological anaerobic oxidation of ammonium received little further attention [ 13 ].

The accommodations and proliferations of anammox bacteria in the inactive methanogenic granules might be the main reason for the high anammox purity in a short period. As medium shows positive effects on anammox process, many studies focused their attention on this area. JadhavMakarand Madhao Ghangrekar Environmental technology