Available at ABIQUIM, Anuario da industria qui’mica brasileira. Associacao Brasileira da Industria Quimica, Sao. Associação Brasileira da Indústria Química. Anuário da Indústria Química Brasileira (ABIQUIM, ). Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia e Inovação. Anuário da Indústria Química Brasileira (ABIQUIM, ). Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI). Emissões de Gases de.

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CO 2 annual emissions for of the energy sources are estimated from the following equation:. The snippet could not be located in the article text. The factor has been set for abiquiim later years and the factor has been set for prior years. These organizations worked based on the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1214 embedding them with multiple sources: For the entire estimation time frameproduction from each aluminum plant was obtained from personal communication with the Brazilian Aluminum Association.

This allocation was made by using emissions-generating activities, such as deforestation rate, fuel sales for transportation and industrial production, or even recollecting available activity data and emission factors for specific sub-national locations anuaario details below. Lime type chemical composition and consequent emission factors used are the same as in MCTI To ensure estimation reproducibility, when cited activity data were not available, incomplete or private, various strategies were used to obtain the estimations, such as the search for benchmarks, trend lines and correlations with other activities see supplementary material.

APLA | Asociación Petroquímica y Química Latinoamericana

Also, it was not possible to gather subnational level anuaroi available information regarding HCFC production. Production data survey follows Supplementary Table S2 for the period until ; fromproduction was fixed by simplification due to data unavailability. Oil and natural gas extraction and production CO 2 fugitive emissions: This data set can be used to investigate GHG emissions in Brazil over more than 4 decades at the national and sub-national level for the following sectors: At the end of thermal reduction process, magnesium is liquid.

The proposed methodology allocated This section will explain these four methods and the three specific methods for fugitive emission estimation CH 4 from coal mining, CO 2 from coal mining and GHG from oil and natural gas industry.

SEEG initiative estimates of Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions from 1970 to 2015

Carbonates consumption Limestone and dolomite are fluxing agents employed in blast furnaces to make slag more fluid and remove impurities in the alloy produced. Those assumptions can the avoided with the use of detailed land use change data, when these are available.


An emission factor from IPCC Guidelines Tier 3 methodology 12 direct measurements was applied for the entire temporal scope: Dolomite consumption During the thermal reduction process, dolomite suffers a chemical reaction similar to calcination, generating CO 2 emissions.

Methane factor became 3. There is only one plant in Brazil responsible for auario national adipic acid production.

Other GHG emissions are estimated as usual, such as for fossil fuels. Abiquij unmanaged landfills, the SEEG project has utilized the default value of zero and for managed landfills, the oxidation value of 0. Production data was obtained as shown in Supplementary Table S5 for period For periods, coefficients were obtained from linear interpolation considering available data forand.

Activity data The basic activity data for the calculation of the variation of soil carbon stocks is abiqujm area used by agriculture, its uses and management.

SEEG initiative estimates of Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions from 1970 to 2015

For the estimation of the variation of soil carbon stocks C soil carbon stockCO 2 emissions and removals in SEEG were calculated according to the formula below, which is a function of soil use and management soil and their respective factors of emission and removal.

Activity data is defined as data on the magnitude of human activity resulting in emissions or removals taking place during a given period of time, whereas the emission factor is the average emission rate of a given GHG for a given source of ablquim data SEEG estimates direct N 2 O emissions from synthetic nitrogen fertilizers applied to soils according to the following equation Aromatic residues and heavy fuel oil hydrocarbon sources partial oxidation is the production route for carbon black in Brazil.

These BIs are based on the IPCC Guidelines 1214but already embedded with several country specific data, which has enabled most estimations to have a Tier 2 level of precision 10 CitePeer Related Articles http: This gas usually leaks into the atmosphere and all the gas used in the process is emitted The variation in soil carbon stocks refers to the emissions and removals sequestration of CO 2 from the soil organic matter. Rio de Janeiro, With defaults values proposed by the IPCC 12 and mathematical correlations of interpolation, the weighted MCF values were obtained for the period of and extrapolated to and CO 2 emissions associated with biomass combustion or use are reported in Agriculture and Land Use Change sectors Cement clinker content was obtained through cement and clinker production data published in the MCTI reference report for the period between and ; for years prior to and subsequent tothe proportion for closest years available were used.


Thus, production of these metals does not provide data necessary for emissions estimations Since glass production data for years between and was not available in the latest version of the statistical yearbook of the non-metallic transformation sector 92emissions in were repeated for these years.

SEEG initiative estimates of Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions from to

Amount of waste disposed tons ; MSW f: In this way, it is important to notice that without the BIs and their reference reports it would not be possible to develop this initiative using Tier 2 level EFs, since the vast majority of specific emission factors were calculated in drawing up the inventory process by teams of dozens of institutions, and involving hundreds of researchers and experts And no scientific consensus has been reached on how much soil carbon actually varies under the combination of different natural and management factors 2627 as well as the agricultural area under different management and its soil conditions in Brazil 18 In the application of vinasse to soil there is no significant loss of N from volatilization, but leaching and runoff only The analysis of the waste sector is characterized by the low availability of reliable data from public or open sources.

Nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure excreted and left on pasturelands SEEG estimates N 2 O emissions from animal manure excreted and left on pasturelands, according to the following equation Concerning charcoal consumption, CO 2 emissions are not accounted for in Industrial Processes and Product Use Sector, as it is considered that these emissions are offset by CO 2 absorption in photosynthesis, which generated biomass, as recommended by IPCC Total population with sewer system hab ; CP: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

In the absence of more detailed information about the SF 6 installed capacity in electrical equipment, reported emissions between and are zero.

For Rio Grande anuaril Sul state, its specific emission factors show two integrated emission factors, one for the conventional and early soil tillage systems, with values of