The concept of modularity enables parallelization of the design process. Locality: The concept of locality in system ensures that the internal details of each Answer: VLSI Design flow consists of several steps which are carried out in linear . VLSI Design Methodologies EEB (Winter ): Lecture # 4Mani of Structured Design Techniques Hierarchy Regularity Modularity Locality; . architecture structure of accumulator is component reg — definition of. Digital VLSI Circuits. 1. Introduction to ASIC Design a. Design Strategies: Hierarchy, Regularity, Modularity & Locality b. Chip Design Options: Gate Array, Field.

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If the designer has a small library of well-defined and well-characterized basic building blocks, a number of different functions can be constructed by using this principle.

Your work with magic modjlarity not require explicit keep out masks, but you will be required to observe implied keep out areas as appropriate. Each design style has its own merits and shortcomings, and thus a proper choice has to be made by designers in order to provide the functionality at low cost. Typical gate array platforms allow dedicated areas, called channels, for intercell routing as shown in Figs.

In this case we create a single design for this module but we use several instances of this design in different parts of the system.

For most small full custom projects, abstracts are not required since the full details of the leaf cells are available.

Hierarchy Rules for Layout

Correspondingly, a hierarchy structure can be described in each domain separately. It is mapped onto the chip surface by floorplanning. The adder can be decomposed progressively into one- bit adders, separate carry and sum circuits, and finally, into individual logic gates.

The power and ground rails typically run parallel to the upper and lower boundaries of the cell, thus, neighboring cells share a common power and ground bus.

For this reason it is best to avoid this style in order to provide cells which are portable between different layout tools.


Memory banks RAM cachedata-path units consisting of bit-slice cells, control circuitry mainly consisting of standard cells and PLA blocks. This design style provides a means for fast prototyping and also for cost-effective chip design, especially for low-volume applications.

Regularity usually reduces the number of different modules that need to be designed and verified, at all levels of abstraction. Some of the classical techniques for reducing the complexity of Localiity design are: Next, the placement and routing step assigns individual logic cells to FPGA sites CLBs and determines the routing patterns among the cells in accordance with the netlist.

Design of VLSI Systems – Chapter 1

The standard-cells based design is one of the most prevalent full custom design styles which require development of a full custom mask set. The basic platform of a SOG chip is shown in Fig.

Note that the keep out areas overlap the cell boundary in order to ensure that external Metal1 and Metal2 cannot be placed close enough to the cell to violate spacing rules. For instance, if a chip designer defined an architecture without close estimation of the corresponding chip area, then it is very likely that the resulting chip layout exceeds the area limit of the available technology. Pf side effect of this complexity hiding is that a sub-module may be changed at any time without disturbing the overall design provided that the changed sub-module continues to support the same interface.

It starts with kf given set of requirements. Gate array implementation requires a two-step manufacturing process: This approach is very similar to the software case where large programs are split into smaller and smaller sections until simple subroutines, with well-defined functions and interfaces, can be written.

The control terminals of multiplexers are omdularity shown explicitly in Fig. Advances in device manufacturing technology, and especially the steady reduction of minimum feature size minimum length of a transistor or an interconnect realizable on chip support this trend. As an example of regulafity hierarchy, Fig.

A minimum size of 0. The programming of the chip remains valid as clsi as the chip is powered-on, or until new programming is done. Remember that diffusion spacing rules are likely to be greater than metal spacing rules.


Hierarchy Rules for Layout

This is a common format for a black box or abstract layout view provided for an ASIC designer by a cell designer. Individual modules are then implemented with leaf cells. The designer attempts to divide the hierarchy into a set of similar blocks. Therefore, the current trend of integration will also continue locapity the foreseeable future. Thus, it is very important to feed forward low-level information to higher levels bottom up as early as possible. Such changes may require significant modification of the original requirements.

The common specification may include features such as: This last point is extremely important for avoiding excessive interconnect delays. The last conncept involves a detailed Boolean description of leaf cells followed by a transistor level implementation of leaf cells and mask generation.

Notice that the nMOS transistors are located closer to the ground rail while the pMOS transistors are placed closer to the power rail. In the following, we will examine design methodologies and structured approaches which have been developed over the years to deal with both complex hardware and software projects.

Gajski shown in Fig. In the case of layout, we must avoid making unwanted connections to elements in the sub-module and we must avoid design rule violations caused by the proximity of external elements to internal elements.

The design complexity of logic chips increases almost exponentially with the number of transistors to be integrated. For logic chip design, a good compromise can be achieved by using a combination of different design styles on the same chip, such as standard cells, data-path cells and PLAs.

The concept of locality also ensures that connections are mostly between neighboring modules, avoiding long-distance connections as much as possible.