Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.
|Published (Last):||25 October 2006|
|PDF File Size:||7.67 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||11.52 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Peace and War at Stake. The Convention now has 77 States Parties. Taking advantage of the gap between the urgent need to fight against global warming and the weak measures provided by governments, climate engineering enmor geoengineering — defined as the deliberate large-scale technological action on the climate system to counter global warming or mitigate certain effectsclimate engineering is increasingly considered by some scientists as a possible response to the challenge posed to the planet.
International Committee of the Red Cross. The Disarmament Bulletin, N. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to cooperate in carrying out any investigation which the Security Council may initiate, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, on the basis of the complaint received by the Council.
The Depositary shall distribute the summary to all States Parties.
There shall be no voting on matters of substance. At intervals of not less than five years thereafter, a majority of the States Parties to this Convention may obtain, by submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary, the convening of a conference with the same objectives. This Convention shall be open to all States for signature.
Stating that the dumping of nuclear waste in developing countries, even if they are not deliberately used in military or hostile activities, is illegal under ENMOD; and. The Declaration fell into oblivion, thus breaking a process of successive reviews which could have led to nothing less than totally prohibiting bombings….
Environmental Modification Convention
Once again there were proposals convenion abolish the troika. The course of action proposed by the Netherlands and Finland was to clarify Article II the definition of environmental modification techniques and the relevant Understandings. These international convejtion may include the services of appropriate international convetion, as well as of a Consultative Committee of Experts as provided for in paragraph 2 of this article.
My purpose, on November 6th, was to remind that the environment, which is always a collateral victim of conflicts and military activities, can also become a weapon in itself, and it is urgent that we concern ourselves with the legal instruments designed to prevent that risk.
Each State Party to this Convention undertakes conventionn to assist, encourage or induce any State, group of States or international organization to engage in activities contrary to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article.
The Committee shall transmit to the Depositary a summary of its findings of fact, incorporating all views and information presented to the Committee during its proceedings. The Security Council shall inform the States Parties of the results of the emmod. UN Documents Gathering a body of global agreements. The Final Document of the Second Review Conference provided that if no Review Conference were held before the Depositary would be requested to solicit the views of all States Parties concerning the convening of such a Conference in accordance with paragraph 3 of article III of the Convention.
The Depositary shall promptly inform all conventikn and acceding States conventuon the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession and the date of the entry into force of this Convention and of any amendments thereto, as well as of the receipt of other notices.
However, it was disappointed that the Conference had been unable to agree to convene an expert meeting to discuss future confidence building mechanisms and verification mechanisms, which could not but enhance the Convention.
It opened for signature on 18 May in Geneva and entered into force on 5 October Welcome Parties’ commitment to observe their obligations vis-a-vis non parties.
It consists of ten articles and an Annex concerning the Consultative Committee of Experts. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party. Yet ENMOD suffers from several loopholes which could not be filled by the first two review conferences, despite the insistence of several states, particularly Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands.
Environmental Modification Convention – Wikipedia
These Understandings are not incorporated into the Convention but are part of the negotiating record and were included in the report transmitted by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament to the United Nations General Assembly in September Report of the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, Volume I, General Assembly Official records: The Understanding relating to Article I gives to the terms “widespread”, “long-lasting” and “severe” an interpretation limited to the ENMOD Convention and one which is not intended to prejudice the interpretation of the same or similar terms if used in connection with any other international agreement.
While many still oppose these hazardous undertakings in the civil area, the military is much less scrupulous and there are many signs of a rampant militarization of climate engineering. On herbicides, the Conference agreed that their use would constitute an environmental modification technique as indicated in Article II.
Clearly, the perceived lack of relevance of ENMOD to the real security needs of most states is the reason for the low level of adherence. Retrieved 19 June Retrieved from ” https: In JulyUS and USSR agreed to hold bilateral discussions on measures to overcome the danger of the use of environmental modification techniques for military purposes and three subsequent rounds of discussions in and For those States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited after the entry into force of this Convention, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments convvention ratification or accession.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake
States parties undertake not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to another State party article I.
HYLTENIUS Sweden said his delegation welcomed the consensus on the prohibition of herbicides as a method of warfare, which it considered to be an important complementary element to the draft Chemical Weapons Convention.
Change the chemical composition of the oceans and wrap conventiln planet with a layer of particles reflecting solar radiations are two examples among more or less 30 techniques mentioned by these sorcerers’ apprentices to reduce global warming and storing CO 2failing to reduce the emissions.
Canada’s opening statement, in: The Second Review Conference took place in September The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s. However, a call for broader adherence will not achieve any more than a similar urging by the First Review Conference unless is accompanied by action that addresses the fundamental cause of low adherence to the ENMOD Convention, its perceived irrelevance to the real security of States.