ABSTRACT. Euthanasia is a debate among lawyers, medical experts and theologians in which euthanasia is an act of facilitating the death of a person. Euthanasia or assisted suicide—and sometimes both—have been legalized in a small number of countries and states. In all jurisdictions, laws and safeguards. Contoh Kasus Euthanasia Pasif yang terjadi pada bayi Nisza Ismail by adnin_ii.

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When unbearable suffering incites psychiatric patients to request euthanasia: Aims To provide insights into the suffering experiences of psychiatric patients who have made a request for euthanasia.

Method Testimonials from 26 psychiatric patients who requested euthanasia were analysed using QualiCoder software. Results Five domains of suffering were identified: Hopelessness was confirmed to be an important contributor. The lengthy process of applying for euthanasia was a cause of suffering and added to experienced hopelessness, whereas encountering physicians who took requests seriously could offer new perspectives on treatment.

Conclusions The development of measurement instruments to assess the nature and extent of suffering as experienced by psychiatric patients could help both patients and physicians to better navigate the complicated and sensitive process of evaluating requests in a humane and competent way.

Some correlates of suffering such as low income indicate the need for a broad medical, societal and political debate eithanasia how to reduce the burden of financial and socioeconomic difficulties and inequalities in order to reduce patients ‘ desire for euthanasia.


Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and controls

Euthanasia should never be seen or used as a means of resolving societal failures. Background The concept of ‘unbearable suffering’ is central to legislation governing whether euthanasia requests may be granted, but remains insufficiently understood, especially in relation to psychiatric patients. What happens after a request for euthanasia is refused? Qualitative interviews with patientsrelatives and physicians. Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide EAS is refused.

In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request euthsnasia refused and seven physicians of these. Invited commentary on … When unbearable suffering incites psychiatric patients to request euthanasia.

Verhofstadt et al ‘s valuable analysis of testimonials from psychiatric patients requesting euthanasia demonstrates that elements of this suffering might well be alleviated. We should not kill our patients. Differences between terminally ill cancer patients who died after euthanasia had been performed and terminally ill cancer patients who did not request euthanasia.

Palliative care, directed at improving the quality of life of terminally ill patientsis generally not aimed at any form of postponing or hastening death. It is possible that high quality euthaansia care could prevent requests for euthanasia.

patients requesting euthanasia: Topics by

However, empirical evidence on this issue is scarce. In a national survey of end-of-life medical decisions in The Netherlands the subject of care at the end of life has been addressed. Data on terminally ill cancer patients who died after their request was granted and euthanasia had been performed were compared ejthanasia those of terminally ill cancer patients who did not request euthanasia.

The results show that the prevalence and severity of symptoms euthanzsia. No differences concerning the treatment of symptoms or the care provided were found between the two groups.

The results suggest that the practice of euthanasia is mainly related to the patient ‘s suffering. Nurses’ involvement in the care of patients requesting euthanasia: The aim of this paper is to thoroughly examine the involvement and experiences of nurses in the care of mentally pasir, adult patients requesting euthanasia i.

A keyword search was used to identify relevant journal articles and books published between and Manual searches of review article bibliographies were also conducted as well as searches of archives and collections of key journals. Forty-two publications of empirical research were identified and included in the present study after critical appraisal.


The included publications represented 35 separated studies 20 quantitative, 11 qualitative and 4 mixed-method publications and 28 different research samples. Analysis of these studies revealed that nurses across diverse geographic and clinical settings play a major role in caring for and showing a personal interest in patients requesting euthanasia.

The nurses’ feelings about euthanasia and their involvement are extremely complex. Descriptions of personal conflict, moral uncertainty, frustration, fear, secrecy,and guilt appear to reflect a complex array of personal and professional values as well as social, religious, eutahnasia legal rules. Nurses can make a significant contribution to the quality of care by assisting and counseling patients and their families, physicians, and their nursing colleagues in a professional manner, even in countries where euthanasia is not legal.

However, research on nurses’ involvement in euthanasia has methodological and terminological problems,leading to our recommendation for more carefully designed qualitative studies. Euthanasia requestsprocedures and outcomes for Belgian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders: Objectives To identify patterns in euthanasia requests and practices relating to psychiatric patients ; to generate recommendations for future research. Design Retrospective analysis of euthanasi obtained through medical file review.

Setting Outpatient psychiatric clinical setting in the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium, between October and December ; follow-up at the end of December Main outcome measures Patient sociodemographic characteristics; diagnoses; decisions on pasf requests ; circumstances of euthanasia procedures; patient outcomes at follow-up.

In total, 48 of the euthanasia requests were accepted and 35 were carried out. Of the 13 remaining patients whose requests were accepted, 8 postponed or cancelled the procedure, because simply having this option gave them enough peace of mind to continue living. In December43 patients had died, including 35 by euthanasia ; others died by suicide 6palliative sedation 1 and anorexia nervosa 1. Conclusions Depression and personality disorders are the most common diagnoses in psychiatric patients requesting euthanasiawith Asperger syndrome representing a neglected disease burden.

Further research is needed, especially prospective quantitative and qualitative studies, to obtain a better understanding of patients with psychiatric disorders who request. Concept of unbearable suffering in context of ungranted requests for euthanasia: Objective To obtain pasof information about the views of patients and physicians on suffering in patients who requested euthanasia in whom the request was not granted or granted but not performed.

Design In-depth interviews with a topic list. Setting Patients ‘ homes and physicians’ offices. Invited commentary on … When unbearable suffering euthanaska psychiatric patients to request euthanasia: Although the paper in this issue by Verhofstadt et al sheds some light on the features of unbearable suffering stemming from psychiatric disorder leading to paaif request for euthanasiathis is limited.

The bulk of the paper illustrates the particular ethical challenges posed by the policy of making euthanasia available in these circumstances. In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these patientsand with three relatives of patients who had died after a request was refused and four physicians of these patients.

Interviews were conducted at least 6 months after the refusal. A wish to die remained in all patients after refusal, although it sometimes diminished. In most cases patient and physician stopped discussing this wish, and none of the physicians had discussed plans for the future with the patient or evaluated the patient ‘s situation after their refusal. Physicians were aware of patients ‘ continued wish to die.

Patients who are refused EAS may subsequently be silent about a wish to die without abandoning it. Open communication about wishes to die is important, even outside the context of EAS, because if people feel unable to talk about them, their quality of life may be further diminished. Follow up appointments after refusal could give patients the opportunity to discuss their euthanaisa and physicians to support them.


Trends and reasons of palliative sedation in cancer patients with and without pending requests of euthanasia in Dutch general practice. Little is known about the quantity and reasons for use of palliative sedation in cancer patients in general practice at the end of life and the reason to perform palliative sedation when also a request for euthanasia is pending.

To gain more insight into the trends of and reasons. Requests for euthanasia in general practice before and after implementation of the Dutch Euthanasia Act. Background The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. Aim To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act.

Design of study Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before — and 5 years after — implementation of the Act. Method Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network.

This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. Results The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: Conclusion There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act.

Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females. Euthanasia is a controversial issue in today’s society. In countries where euthanasia is legal, it is mainly associated with people with cancer.

We retrospectively studied the frequency and basis of patients ‘ requests for active euthanasia in the oncology setting. MethodsRecurrent requests for euthanasia made by the patients of Leon-Berard cancer center Lyon, France between and were recorded by questioning the physicians and nurse supervisors in charge or by collecting information from the minutes of multidisciplinary palliative care meetings.

We also collected information on the general health status of the patientstheir motives and their evolution over time, as well as responses from caregivers. ResultsWe identified 16 requests for euthanasia. In 2 cases, the request had come from the family only. Half of the patientsparticularly those striving for autonomy, persisted with their request until death, whereas 2 of 3 requests motivated by physical or psychological distress were not maintained.

Sedation was administered to 3 patients in response to recurrent requests. ConclusionRequests for euthanasia in cancer patients are rare but may occur. Sometimes suffering is not relieved by palliative care and the request is maintained. Dealing with these patients puts caregivers in a difficult situation. Perspectives of decision-making in requests for euthanasia: Euthanasia has been legally performed in the Netherlands since Respect for patient ‘s autonomy is the underpinning ethical principal.

However, patients have no right to euthanasiaand physicians have no obligation to provide it. Although over cases are conducted per year in the Netherlands, there is little known about how decision-making occurs and no guidance to support this difficult aspect of clinical practice.

To explore the decision-making process in cases where patients request euthanasia and understand the different themes relevant to optimise this decision-making process.

A qualitative thematic analysis of interviews with patients making explicit requests for euthanasiamost-involved relative s and treating physician. Thirty-two cases, 31 relatives and 28 treating physicians.