Cross-Cultural Themes Series. Author, Peter T. Furst. Edition, illustrated, reprint. Publisher, Chandler & Sharp, ISBN, , Hallucinogens and Culture has 34 ratings and 1 review. Blair said: A guy who works at Loui’s gave me this book when he saw I was reading Terence McKenna . HALLUCINOGENS AND CULTURE by PETER T. FURST. San. Francisco: Chandler & Sharp Publishers, Inc., pp. $ Reviewed by William.

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As Schultes and his coworkers point out, considering the great economic and therapeutic importance of this multipurpose plant to man since he first cultivated it perhaps as much as 10, years ago, and the fact that the drug it yields continues to be the focus of considerable controversy as well as medical experimentation, the time “is long overdue when a full study of Cannabis taxonomy must be initiated” p. If a dog should urinate on the drying pipes they cannot be used in any ceremony.

The principal active alkaloid is mainly concentrated in the root bark, and it is this that the Fang employ for ecstatic inebriation, in the form of raspings, ground up as powder or soaked in water and drunk as an infusion. It is still the common practice among the Yanomamo Shiriana, Waika of the Upper Orinoco as well as other aboriginal populations of tropical South America.

Edward Brecher et al. I am familiar with at least one naturalistic Maya figurine from the island of Jaina, in the Gulf of Campeche, depicting what seems to be a priest with four perforated folds of flesh on his bare back, one pair on each side.

It may come as something of a surprise that contrary to conventional wisdom Cannabis should be treated as a multispecies genus rather than as a single species, Cannabis sativa L, with several geographical or ecological varieties e.

The evidence, archaeological and otherwise, is such that we can say with certainty that most societies, if not all, that still employ hallucinogenic plants in their rituals have done so for centuries, not to say millennia.

Hallucinogens and Culture – Peter T. Furst – Google Books

Male-Female Symbolism and Acculturation The mushroom of the origin myth is a white fungus with a large cap that is sometimes consumed in the Fuurst cult and that also plays a role in herbal concoctions. MDA haolucinogens recently proved to be toxic to certain individuals and at varying dose levels; as is true of chloroform, among other drugs, what may be a regular dose to most patients may prove fatal to some.

Who, indeed, could doubt the power of such a mixture on the mind as hallucinogejs as the body? Enema hallucinogenz or narcotic clysters, and even enema rituals, were discovered to be represented in Maya art, an outstanding example being a large painted vase dating ADon which a man is depicted carrying an enema syringe, applying an enema to himself, and having a woman applying it to him.

Moreover, there is an intriguing legal aspect: French medical scientists studied ibogaine— now known to function as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor in the brain— intensively around the turn of the century and adopted it into official medicine as the first antidepressant of its kind, long before the advent of Tofranil, iproniazide, and similar drugs.

Largely because of public or official hysteria over recreational marihuana use, medical demand for Cannabis extracts was until recently very low, but beginning in there has been a sharp upturn in experimental use of Cannabis as medication for a variety of disorders, including alcoholism, heroin and amphetamine dependence, emotional disturbance, and even glaucoma.

Slu rated it it was amazing Aug 17, Historically, the potent seeds were the focus of a widespread complex of ecstatic visionary shamanistic medicine societies among the tribes of the Southern Plains, until in the final decades of the nineteenth century Sophora was finally replaced by the more benign peyote cactus, while the red-bean cults themselves were hallucnogens by the new syncretistic peyote religion that eventually was embraced as halluxinogens Native American Church byIndians from the Cklture Grande in Texas to the Canadian Plains.


Hallucinogens and Culture (Chandler & Sharp series in cross-cultural themes)

Lists with This Book. While he calls MDA the “drug of analysis,” capable of returning the patient deep into his troubling past far more quickly than is usual with traditional psychoanalysis and less traumatically than with LSD, MMDA induces ecstatic or peak cultjre of the here and now, again without the temporary disintegration of personality and other drastic psychic effects that often accompany the use of LSD in psychotherapy, creating instead He is thus already at a very different level of consciousness, so much so that it is not frst for him to be under the influence of the peyote alkaloids to perceive the plant in its animal form when the leader of the pilgrimage exclaims, at the sight of the very first cactus: The Huichol of Mexico, like the Cahuilla of Southern California or rurst Tukano of Colombia, returns from his initiatory “trip” to exclaim, “It is as my fathers explained it to me!

It extends toward the origin of what Jung called “archetypes,” mythmaking and common worldwide themes in oral tradition especially the strikingly similar content the world over of funerary, heroic, and shamanistic mythologyart and iconography, traditional cultural systems of perceiving and ordering reality that differ drastically from the so-called “scientific” western model, conceptions of Otherworlds, death and afterlife, mysticism, and, indeed, what we call religion itself.

Tobacco juice, ayahuasca Banisteriopsis caapiand even a species of Anadenanthera A. To ask cu,ture readers questions about Hallucinogens and Cultureplease sign up. Originally thought to be the expression of the survivors’ love and regard for their deceased relative and proof of the high spiritual development of these Neanderthals, the plant remains may actually have also been part of a curing shaman’s medicine kit.

The movement toward decriminalization of Cannabis use received a major boost in with the publication of Ganja in Jamaica, by Vera Rubin and Lambros Comitasa medical anthropological study of chronic marihuana use sponsored by the Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute hallucinoyens Mental Health. If this be so, then it may add still another argument for specific differentiation in the genus.

Some branches of the Bwiti cult mix alan and eboka. Although the family as a whole is rich in alkaloids, T. Again pointing up culture as the crucial variable in the use and effects of a drug was the finding that, as Governor Shafer notes, in contrast to the alleged “amotivational” effects generally attributed to marihuana in the United States, in Jamaica ganja “serves to fulfill values of the work ethic. Inasmuch as the gods crave tobacco as their essential spirit food usually though not always or everywhere in the form of smokeby this act of generosity they could be said to have placed themselves in a position of dependency, subject to manipulation by religious practitioners.

Among these alkaloids, the tryptamines are the most important hallucinogens Schultes,a. Toad As Earth Mother: There are also stories of peyote pilgrims dying after a tobacco purification ordeal in the course of the quest for peyote.

The latex of Elaeophorbia drupifera is mixed with oil to form eyedrops that seem to affect the optic nerves, producing bizarre visual effects. Indeed, we can go so far as to say that the psychotropic plants have helped determine the history of the culture, inasmuch as it is typically in the ecstatic initiatory trance experience that the individual confirms for himself the validity of tribal traditions he has heard his elders recite from earliest childhood: Along the way he must travel on slippery paths across a yawning defile, evade the knives of demons, the snapping beaks and talons of raptorial birds, and the jaws of alligators and other terrifying creatures, until at the moment of greatest rapture, having successfully negotiated the final obstacle of clashing gates, he is wafted, “buoyant as a puff of cotton,” toward his celestial encounter with the supreme spirit in the House of Tobacco Smoke.


Nor was it different in South America. Prominent among the latter are certain species of morning glories whose psychedelic seeds were held especially sacred— to the point of divinity— by the Aztecs and by peoples of central Mesoamerica, and whose active principles the scientific world was surprised to learn only a few years ago are closely allied to the synthetic hallucinogen LSD- Snyder of Johns Hopkins University and Dr.

We also know that the original Americans sustained themselves with now extinct big game, especially mammoth and mastodon, giant sloth, Pleistocene camel and horse, as well as smaller animals and wild plants, and that their technology and general adaptations resembled by and large those of their contemporaries in comparable environments in Eurasia.

The same sort of direct psychic bond between healer and patient is still common in drug-assisted folk therapy in Mexico as well as Peru.

There are many historical reasons for this difference, but one that should be stressed is that prior to European colonization the New World as a whole never hallucinogena the intolerant fanaticism that is the hallmark of some of the major Old World religions, particularly Christianity and Islam, both of which massively transformed the areas in which they took hold— although, as we know, four centuries of Spanish Catholicism have failed to eradicate completely all traces of the pre-European past, and were spectacularly unsuccessful in the suppression of the sacred traditional hallucinogens.

While in hallucinoges MBieri curing cult women are dominant, in Bwiti men and women have an equal place. It is probably not too much to say that mysticism, or religion, has always been a fundamental aspect of the human condition, cluture its beginnings reaching back perhaps to the primitive origins of self-consciousness.

It was the sacred picietl of Aztec ritual and medicine, also the divine tobacco of the Indians of the eastern Woodlands and also, probably, the petum of aboriginal Hallucinogenz. Yaje or yage is a Tukanoan word widely employed in the northwest Amazon, and for the reason that by far the best anthropological analysis ever written on the complex mythological, symbolic, and social meanings of the Banisteriopsis drink in the aboriginal world comes from the Tukanoan Desana of Colombia Reichel-Dolmatoff, that is what we will call it here.

Mexican and Peruvian Indians, after all, experienced the otherworldly effects of mescaline thousands of years before Aldous Huxley. The chapters that follow are not intended as an exhaustive treatment of hallucinogens, but mainly as a selective introduction to the botany and pharmacology of psychoactive substances in their cultural context.

But we should not fall into cultkre common error of equating technological complexity with intellectual capacity.

For it was generally characteristic even of the stratified, militaristic, and expansionist Indian civilizations that conquest by one group or another, if it affected religion at all, typically resulted in accretion or synthesis rather than in persecution, suppression, and forced conversion.

Schultes’s field research in the American tropics and in Mexico since the late ‘s has directly or indirectly led to the botanical, chemical and cultural identification of most of the vegetal hallucinogens of the New World, a task that is nonetheless not yet complete and will undoubtedly continue for years to come.

Shamanism is deeply rooted in the ecstatic, visionary experience, and the early Native Americans, as well as their descendants, were thus, so to speak, “culturally programmed” for a conscious exploration of the environment hallucnogens search of means by which to attain that desired state. Kalyn rated it liked it Aug 27,