JOMINY HARDENABILITY TEST. Objective. To study hardness as a function of quench rate and investigate the hardenability of steels. Introduction. PDF | The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel , which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a. The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth.

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Slower cooling rates occur at the core of larger components, compared to the faster cooling rate at the surface. When a hot steel work-piece is quenchedthe area in contact with the water immediately cools and its temperature equilibrates with the quenching medium.

The data is shown as Vickers and Rockwell hardness. The effect of boron is also independent of the amount of boron, provided sufficient is added, and the effect of boron is greatest at lower carbon contents. This composite microstructure of martensite and austenite gives a lower hardness to the steel, although the microhardness of the martensite phase itself is still high.

The main alloying elements which affect hardenability are carbon, boron and a group of elements including Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Hardejability. The furnace used to heat the steel into the austenite phase field.

Hardenability – Wikipedia

It is typically used with lower carbon steels. There jiminy different scales for the Rockwell hardness test. There are conversion charts between the hardness scales.


Boron is a very potent alloying element, typically requiring 0. This tst commonly used in the USA. Modern materials and manufacturing processes. This describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth by quenching. Hardenability is the ability of a steel to partially or completely transform from austenite to some fraction of martensite at a given depth below the surface, when cooled under a given condition.

From Wikipedia, the jiminy encyclopedia. Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in a 1mm diameter wood-working drill.

The variation of hardness was measured with distance from the quenched end.

Jominy End Quench Test

James Marrow and Dave Hudson. The Jominy end-quench test was invented by Walter E. Structure of En 24 at 10 cm position along Jominy bar, furthest from the quenched end.

You have three steels. This cools the specimen from one end, simulating the effect of quenching a larger steel component in water. The fluid used for quenching the material influences the cooling rate due to varying thermal conductivities and specific heats.

The inner depths of the material however, do not cool so rapidly, and in work-pieces that are large, the cooling rate may be slow enough to jominny the austenite to transform fully into a structure other than martensite or bainite.

The bar is divided into 25 equal length elements, and, at each time step of the simulation, for each element, a new temperature, resulting from heat transfer at either end, is calculated. Click on the circled data points to see how the microstructure varies with distance from the quenched end. The Vickers hardness test uses a square pyramidal diamond indentor.


This results in a work-piece that hardenabilitg not have the same crystal structure throughout its entire depth; with a softer core and harder “shell”. Knowledge of the hardenability of steels is necessary in order to select the appropriate combination of alloy and heat treatment for components hardenabiliry different size, to minimise thermal stresses and distortion. The cold region has transformed from austenite to a tets of martensite, ferrite and pearlite.

The hardness of the samples was measured as a function of the distance from the quenched end to demonstrate the different hardenability of the two steels.

This information is plotted on a hardenability graph. The test sample is quickly transferred to the test machine, where it is held vertically and sprayed with a controlled flow of water onto one end of the sample.

It is an indication of how deep into the material a certain hardness can be achieved.

After quenching the hardness profile is measured at intervals from the quenched end after the surface has been ground back to remove any effects of decarburisation 0. Views Read Edit View history. The Jominy end quench test is the standard method for measuring the hardenability of steels.

For example, the cooling rate at a distance of 9. The retardation is due to the need for redistribution of the alloying elements during the diffusional phase transformation hardehability austenite to ferrite and pearlite.