The scale is composed of 24 items divided into 2 subscales, 13 concerning performance anxiety, and 11 pertaining to social situations. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the first evaluation The score equal to or greater than 32 is suggested as a cutoff score for the. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is a widely used The original LSAS model implied by the scoring instructions yields seven.

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They also found significant differences in the scores for some sub-scales total fear between males and females.

For example, in certain cultures, they are viewed as positive docial because the individual is considered introspective, a highly valued characteristic, especially in the Eastern cultures liebowita 30 ]. The results evidence the cultural issues surrounding the diagnosis of SAD, since the constructs shyness and embarrassment, closely linked to the disorder, can be evaluated very differently in relation to the context in which they operate.

Scorjng longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation: The LSAS differs from most other social anxiety measures in that it assesses anxiety and avoidance in specific social situations e. The social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale”. The capacity of the LSAS-SR to discriminate between the different participants according to the variables gender, sample group and subtype of the disorder SAD generalized or circumscribed was also verified, with the results presented in Table 5.

Behav Modif22 3: The LSAS comprises 24 social situations that are each rated for level of fear and avoidance. To examine the factor structure, we estimated the sample covariance matrices using a maximum-likelihood solution in AMOS. The Baker anxieth model social interaction, nonverbal performance, ingestion, public performance, assertiveness also demonstrated good fit on two out of three indices.

Third, avoidance ratings for all situations are summed to create an Avoidance subscale.

Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun 1. Thus, while there are mixed findings for the factor structure of the LSAS in European American samples, our understanding is even less clear in non-European samples. A comparison of social phobia outcome measures in cognitive-behavioral group therapy.


A structural equation model analysis of perceived control and psychological distress on worry among African American and European American young adults. Research found that the internal consistency of the LSAS is high, too. Among the sample groups, according to the post-hoc analysis Bonferronithe Scorinf group had the highest mean score, followed by the SC and NC groups. The importance of cross-cultural validation studies is related to the adequacy of the evaluation parameters of each instrument for a particular sociocultural context.

The original LSAS model implied by the scoring instructions yields seven different scores. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The original scoring instructions implied two-factors social interaction, performance separately for fear and avoidance.

Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale

To compare the groups, according to sociodemographic and clinical data, the chi-square test and ANOVA were used. Regarding the cutoff scores, those which presented the best balance between the evaluated parameters were similar between ahxiety C and NC groups and between the SC and NC groups, as can be seen in Table 3. It was not possible to make contact with of these and 83 claimed to have no amxiety interest in participating.

Journal of anxiety disorders. In two studies conducted in the United States [ 1113 ], with clinical populations of cases and non-cases, both arrived at the same cutoff value, suggesting a score of 30, for the total scale, a value close to that of the present study. Examination of the known-groups validity of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Whereas the original factor structures generally held for the European Scorign sample, several items needed to be dropped for the models to fit the African American sample.

Liebowitz social anxiety scale

Usually, the sum of the total fear and total avoidance scores are used in determining the final score thus, essentially it uses the same numbers as the self-administered test. Scores higher than 90 indicate that SAD is highly probable. The training consists of a graduated set of tasks and experiences, beginning with reading relevant papers, studying instruments and instruction booklets, watching training tapes, and reviewing suggestions for handling common interviewing problems.


Am J Psychiatry Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry. Moreover, examining the factor structure of measures in diverse samples may inform about whether the construct of social anxiety differs across ethnic and racial groups in clinically meaningful ways.

To assess social phobia, psychologists and clinicians need to distinguish between performance anxiety and social interaction anxiety in order to make an accurate diagnosis. The Student t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the variables according to the gender of the participants, the clinical groups and the SAD subtypes, using the Bonferroni post-hoc test.

Studies by Baker and colleagues have shown a high reliability and validity to the self-report questionnaire, consistent with the clinician-administered version of the LSAS, with the only exception being the fear subscale of performance situations. They were included only after their agreement and signing of the terms of informed consent.

Acknowledgements We sovial Michael Armey for consultation on our data analyses. Scores in this range often are accompanied by great distress and difficulty in social functioning, and are also commonly seen in persons entering treatment for the generalized type of SAD. Similar to previous reports, fear and avoidance subscales were so highly correlated that they yielded redundant information.

The main limitation of this study relates to the sample used, consisting only of university students. The sample was composed of Brazilians university students, allocated into three different groups, i.

Columbia University Medical Center, n. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale: During the early phases of recruitment, participants were referred to the study by site collaborators and affiliated treatment providers.

Additionally, responses to the 11 social-interaction and 13 performance sxale may be summed separately for fear and avoidance, creating four subscales: Finally, we did not include a European American control group and therefore could not directly examine invariance across ethnicities. All three models resulted in significant Chi-Square statistics, suggesting poor fit to liebowits data.