It is battle between land power and sea power which is going to lead the world continents by one. What is Heartland theory? This theory explains,greatest wealth. Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: Mackinder gave this theory in This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers. The final tradition informing geopolitical thought in Russia today is the celebrated “Heartland” theory of the British geographer and statesman. Halford Mackinder.

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The Geographical Pivot of History

The vital question was how to secure control for the Heartland. Mackinder died on March 6th,aged 86 years. Mackinder held that effective political domination of the Heartland by a single power had been unattainable in the past because:. Mackinder wrote down the theory in the turn of the 20th century, a period when modern technological advancements were still in their infancy. Halford relied on the interlinking of continents to come up with the dichotomy whereby interlinked continents were classified in a common region.

The Heartland is inaccessible from sea as all the rivers either drain inland e. What is the Heartland Theory?

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory – Explained!

Halford John Mackinderthe author. The heartlan of Japan and the Kackinder Isles were categorized under the offshore islands. This Heartland was perceived as the greatest natural fortress on earth surrounded on all sides by geographical barriers.

This question may seem pointless, since in the Russian Empire had ruled most of the area from the Volga to Eastern Siberia for centuries. According to the theory, the core of global influence lies in what is known as the Heartland, a region of the world situated in Eurasia due to its sheer size, a wealth of resources, and a high population.

He divided Europe into east and west by a line joining the Adriatic to the Baltic. Mackinder had a liking for Geography and was a proponent of having physical geography and human geography taught as one subject. Views Read Edit View history. Please help to improve mackinfer article by introducing more precise citations.

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory – Explained!

He outlined the following ways in which the Heartland might become a springboard for global domination in the twentieth century Sempa, Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. The combined empire’s large East Asian coastline would also provide the potential for it to become a major sea power. While the Heartland Theory was drafted in the early 20th century, before the world was plunged into the two World Wars and a Cold War soon after that, some scholars can link recent events of the 21st century as examples of the Heartland Theory in action.


Mackinder’s “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Halford Mackinder was a 20th-century geopolitical scholar who is attributed for writing the Heartland Theory. According to this theory, the continental power was represented by the world island which consisted of Eurasia and Africa comprising seven- eighth of total world population and two-third of the total land area of the world.

Mackinder gave this theory in Only countries in Eastern Europe were seen as potential candidates of launching a successful invasion in the Heartland. Countries of Eastern Europe enjoy proximity to the Heartland and therefore are in literally the best position to take advantage of its resources.

Also, China later went on to join the communist sphere, while the Saudi Arabia-Sahara barrier could mackindet prevent the Cold War from spilling over into Africa. Mackinder believed that countries from other world regions the offshore islands and the outlying islands were hindered from making a successful invasion in the Heartland by the geographical barriers surrounding the Heartland the Carpathian Mountains to the mackindee, the Hindukush Ranges to the South, and the Altai to the east and the Baltic Sea to the north.

Anyway, the advances in satellite, missile, atomic and space technologies have overshadowed the strategic importance of geographic factors. This page was last updated on September 26, It had rugged mountains of Lena Land in the north-east; in the east it had the Altai, Tienshan mountains across which lie the wastelands of Mongolia and Sinkiang; in the south it had Hindukush ranges and the plateau of Afghanistan and Iran; in the south-west, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Msckinder lie the Caucasus and the plateau of Armenia; in the west, the Heartland was surrounded by the Carpathian mountains; in the north-west were the Baltic Sea and the wastes of Lappland; in the north lies the Arctic Ocean.

China needed to first emerge as the largest economy in Asia-Europe, before it eventually surpasses the United States as the rheory superpower, fulfilling what Mackinder stated: However, the Heartland has been under Russian authority for hundreds of years and so to capture the Heartland, countries needed to prevent the expansion of Russian influence in the Heartland at the very least.


January Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Heartland Theory is seen by critics as impractical in a modern perspective. This page was last edited on 27 Septemberat Gadzhev, in his book Vvedenie v geopolitiku Introduction to Geopolitics raises a series of objections to Mackinder’s Heartland to start with that the significance physiography is given there for political strategy is a form of geographical determinism.

His map Mercator projection of the world enclosed within an ellipse exaggerated the extent of the Arctic Ocean.

Mackinder called it the Heartland total area being 11 million square kilometres. However, the roles of both the Intermediate Region and the Heartland are regarded by their mackinddr authors as being pivotal in the shaping of world history.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Volga, Oxus, Jaxartes or into the icy sea e. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

Halford Mackinder was born on February 15th, in Mckinder, England and received his education at the Epsom College and later at Christ Church in Oxford, where he received his biology degree in The outlying islands were made up of the Americas as well as Australia.

Articles hheartland in-text citations from January All articles lacking in-text citations Articles that may contain original research from November Articles with multiple maintenance issues Pages to import images to Wikidata Use dmy dates from February Signs of Mackinder’s Heartland Theory can be found in the works of geopolitician Dimitri Kitsikisparticularly in his ” Intermediate Region ” model. This mackindet or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic.

Mackinder predicted that whoever got the balance of power in its favour would rule-the World Island. This concept is an analysis of the political pattern of the world and includes predictions based on this analysis. This article has multiple issues. This dividing line was also a zone of struggle between the Teutonic Germany and the Slavs Russia with no established balance of power.

For instance, the writer claimed that the existing natural barriers would protect the Heartland from foreign invasion. That never actually happened.